Adjective use in english

Adjective (विषेशण)

विषेषण वो शब्द या शब्दों का समूह (उपवाक्य) होते हैं जो किसी संज्ञा या सर्वनाम की विषेषता बताते हैं या फिर उस संज्ञा या सर्वनाम के बारे में कुछ अतिरिक्त सूचना देते हैं। ये भी कह सकते हैं कि विषेशण किसी संज्ञा या सर्वनाम का वर्णन करते हैं।

Adjectives are the words or the group of words that show the quality of noun/pronoun or provide some additional information about them. In other words, Adjectives describe a noun or pronoun.

आइए कुछ उदाहरण देखें।

Let’s see some examples.

1) Ram is brave. ( राम बहादुर है)

‘बहादुर’ होना राम की विषेषता है। चूँकि राम एक संज्ञा है इसलिए ‘Brave’ एक विषेषण है।

To be ‘Brave’ is the quality of Ram. Since Ram is a noun, hence Brave is an adjective.

2) He was brave. ( वह बहादुर है)

‘बहादुर’ होना उसकी यानि ‘He’ की विषेषता है। चूँकि “वह” यानि ‘He’ एक सर्वनाम है इसलिए ‘Brave’ एक विषेषण है।

To be ‘Brave’ is the quality of ‘He’. Since ‘He’ is a pronoun, hence Brave is an adjective.

3) I have some/much water. ( मेरे पास थोड़ा/बहुत पानी है)

पानी एक संज्ञा है इसके साथ ‘थोड़ा’ या ‘ज़्यादा’ लगाने से पानी की मात्रा के बारे में पता चल रहा है। यानि यह शब्द पानी के बारे में कुछ अतिरिक्त सूचना दे़ रहा है इसलिए ‘some/much’ एक विषेषण है।

Here, we have used ‘some/much’ with water. It gives an idea about the amount of water. So using ‘some’ or ‘much’ gives some additional information about water. ‘Water’ is a noun so ‘some/much’ is an adjective.

4) Aman is my brother who plays with you. (अमन मेरा भाई है जो तुम्हारे साथ खेलता है)

इस वाक्य में जैसे ही कहा गया कि “जो तुम्हारे साथ खेलता है” , इससे अमन के बारे में कुछ अतिरिक्त बात पता लगती है कि वो तुम्हारे साथ खेलता है, चूंकि अमन एक व्यक्ति का नाम यानि संज्ञा है इसलिए संज्ञा के बारे में कुछ अतिरिक्त सूचना देने वाला यह वाक्य “जो तुम्हारे साथ खेलता है” एक विषेषण उपवाक्य है।

In this sentence, when said “who plays with you”, it provides additional information about Aman that he plays with you. Since Aman is the name of a person, means a noun, hence, the clause ‘who plays with you’, which provides additional information about a noun is an adjective clause.

5) He is Ram who is older than I. (वो राम है जो मुझसे बड़ा है)

जब हम ये कहते हैं कि “जो मुझसे बड़ा है” , तो हमें राम के बारे में कुछ अतिरिक्त बात पता लगती है इसलिए यह वाक्य “जो मुझसे बड़ा है” एक विषेषण उपवाक्य है।

When We say “who is older than I”, it gives us some additional information about Ram, who is a noun. Hence, this clause ‘who is older than I’ is an adjective clause.

प्राय: विशेषणों की तीन degrees होती हैं-

Generally, There are three degrees of adjectives-

1. Positive

2. Comparative

3. Superlative

 use of er/est

Positive                                 Comparative                                    Superlative

Tall                                          Taller                                                  Tallest

Short                                      Shorter                                              Shortest

Big                                          Bigger                                                            Biggest

Small                                      Smaller                                              Smallest

Great                                     Greater                                              Greatest

Lengthy                                 Lengthier                                          Lengthiest

Long                                       Longer                                               Longest

Wide                                      Wider                                                 Widest

High                                        Higher                                                Highest

Deep                                      Deeper                                               Deepest

Black                                      Blacker                                              Blackest

White                                     Whiter                                               Whitest

Bitter                                     Bitterer                                              Bitterest

Sweet                                     Sweeter                                             Sweetest

Sour                                       Sourer                                                Sourest

Clean                                      Cleaner                                              Cleanest

Dirty                                       Dirtier                                                Dirtiest

Cold                                        Colder                                                Coldest

Hot                                         Hotter                                                Hottest

Fast                                        Faster                                                Fastest

Slow                                       Slower                                               Slowest

Hard                                       Harder                                               Hardest

Tough                                    Tougher                                             Toughest

Soft                                        Softer                                                 Softest

Rich                                        Richer                                                            Richest

Poor                                       Poorer                                               Poorest

Strong                                    Stronger                                            Strongest

Weak                                     Weaker                                              Weakest

Heavy                                     Heavier                                              Heaviest

Light                                       Lighter                                               Lightest

Young                                     Younger                                             Youngest

Old                                          Older/Elder                                       Oldest/Eldest

Bright                                     Brighter                                             Brightest

Clever                                     Cleverer                                             Cleverest

Dear                                       Dearer                                               Dearest

Loud                                       Louder                                               Loudest

Near                                       Nearer                                               Nearest

Soon                                       Sooner                                               Soonest

Wise                                       Wiser                                                 Wisest

Pure                                       Purer                                                  Purest

Brave                                     Braver                                                Bravest

use of  more/most

Active                                    More Active                                    Most Active

Beautiful                               More Beautiful                                Most Beautiful

Careful                                   More Careful                                    Most Careful

Cheerful                                More Cheerful                                 Most Cheerful

Dangerous                            More Dangerous                             Most Dangerous

Difficult                                 More Difficult                                  Most Difficult

Diligent                                  More Diligent                                   Most Diligent

Famous                                 More Famous                                  Most Famous

Foolish                                   More Foolish                                    Most Foolish

Harmful                                 More Harmful                                  Most Harmful

Honest                                   More Honest                                    Most Honest

Important                             More Important                              Most Important

Industrious                           More Industrious                            Most Industrious

Intelligent                             More Intelligent                              Most Intelligent

Interesting                            More Interesting                             Most interesting

Popular                                  More Popular                                  Most Popular

Powerful                               More Powerful                                Most Powerful

Patient                                   More Patient                                   Most Patient

Urgent                                   More Urgent                                    Most urgent

Useful                                    More useful                                      Most Useful

Some adjectives have their comparative and Superlative degrees in an irregular pattern:

Good, Well               Better                                    Best

Bad, ill                        Worse                        Worst

Much, Many             More                          Most

Little   Less,               Lesser                                   Least

नीचे दिये गये वाक्यों में विषेषण शब्दों या विषेषण उपवाक्यों को गहरे काले अक्षरों में लिखा हुआ है।

Following are the sentences, where adjectives are written in bold letters.

 It is a bright

Dehradun is a huge

She is a very nice

They are cute.

They both are in a difficult

 I am taller than you.

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